What we do

Projects and CAP services

UN Environment’s primary role is to assist Article 5 countries in actual or potential non-compliance to be in compliance with their obligations under this multilateral environmental agreement (MEA). The Compliance Assistance Programme (CAP) cooperates closely with the Ozone Secretariat, the Multilateral Fund Secretariat, and other Implementing Agency partners to identify countries that have difficulties in maintaining compliance or are at risk of being in non-compliance, with particular reference paid to countries in post-conflict situations. Read more

Data reporting and surveys

The success of the Montreal Protocol is reliant on Parties reporting data accurately and on time. National data on ozone depleting substances (ODS) is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol system.  The data is used for assessing each country’s compliance with the ODS phase-out schedules agreed under the Protocol, and for tracking overall progress in phasing-out ODS.  The annual data provides important information on national efforts and global efforts to protect the ozone layer, including on new problems or issues at the national level or global level such as providing a basis for further policy development, for identifying appropriate activities and priorities at national level helping to identify illegal trade in ODS. There are two principal data requirements under the Montreal Protocol. The two reporting mechanisms ask for different types of information overall.  However, the quantitative data on ODS imports, exports and production is normally the same in both. Read more

Policy, licensing and quotas

Comprehensive and effective national policy frameworks are essential for developing countries to meet and sustain their compliance obligations under the Montreal Protocol. National Ozone Units in developing countries must develop, implement and enforce a range of different measures – institutional, legislative and investment-oriented – to control HCFCs and other ozone depleting substances. The dual gains for the ozone layer and climate system can only be realized if countries choose the right path, which may not be the “business as usual” technology option and which may require additional consideration by those making the policy decisions. An impartial consideration of the relative merits of HCFC replacement technologies and chemicals is essential. The policy and legislation in the country have a great deal to do with shaping the technology course taken by Article 5 countries, and National Ozone Units are the key drivers of such policies. There are a range of short and medium-term policy and legislative options available. Read more

Customs and enforcement

This page brings together a range of materials intended to support customs and enforcement officers in their work to implement national licensing systems for ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol, to detect and prevent illegal trade in these chemicals, and to facilitate the legal trade. Read more

Refrigeration and air conditioning

Ozone depleting substances, particularly HCFCS, and non-ozone depleting alternatives such as HFCs are the most commonly used substances in refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Most HCFCs and HFCs used in these applications have global warming potentials (GWPs) that are in the range of 1000 to 4000 times more powerful as greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide. Some of the low GWP alternatives to HCFCs and HFCs have properties such as higher flammability, higher toxicity and higher pressure that require a significantly different approach than that employed for previous generations of refrigerant technologies, due to the related safety issues.. Read more

Training and capacity building

UN Environment’s primary role is to assist Article 5 countries in actual or potential non-compliance to be in compliance with their obligations under this multilateral environmental agreement (MEA). The Compliance Assistance Programme (CAP) cooperates closely with the Ozone Secretariat, the Multilateral Fund Secretariat, and other Implementing Agency partners to identify countries that have difficulties in maintaining compliance or are at risk of being in non-compliance, with particular reference paid to countries in post-conflict situations. Read more

Awareness and education

The Montreal Protocol  continues to achieve its goals because aware, informed and educated stakeholders are motivated to take the specific actions that are needed to protect the Earth’s ozone layer. Education is an important element in sustaining this success and it is crucial for ensuring that future generations become involved in the process. Targeted initiatives at universities and schools inspire both collective and individual involvement in this global environmental challenge. Read more

Foam

Foam products are manufactured with chemical blowing agents that expand the plastic matrix before it solidifies. The type and amount of blowing agent used, as well as the processing conditions applied, determines the final density of the foam that is generated. Since HCFCs are commonly used as blowing agents, foam manufacturing is the second largest consumption sector worldwide for those substances. The main applications of HCFC blowing agents is in rigid polyurethane (PU) foam used in sandwich panels, pipe and appliance insulation, in spray foams and in ex¬truded polystyrene (XPS) foam.  Common blowing agent formulations found in developing countries use HCFC-containing pre-blended polyols that are imported from other countries. Read more

Methyl bromide

Methyl bromide, an ozone depleting substance, was used extensively in the past as a fumigant for controlling a wide range of pests and pathogens present in soils (fungi, bacteria and soil-borne viruses), as well as in post-harvest storage of commodities, in buildings or structures (insects, mites, nematodes and rodents). Since alternatives were available for such applications, they were classified under the Protocol as “controlled uses.” The Multilateral Fund supported developing countries to adopt new fumigants, technologies and practices, and by 1 January 2015 the global phase out of methyl bromide for controlled uses was completed – one of the great success stories of the Montreal Protocol.. Read more