The Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA) was adopted by 108 Governments and the European Commission at an intergovernmental conference convened for this purpose in Washington, D.C., United States of America, in 1995.
The implementation of the GPA is primarily the task of Governments, in close partnership with all stakeholders including local communities, public organizations, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. Formulation of national and regional programmes of action is a necessity for successful implementation. UNEP, as the Coordinating Unit of the GPA, and its partners is facilitating and assisting Governments in their tasks.
Intergovernmental Review Meetings (IGR) are organised every 5 years, it is a forum where Governments and other stakeholders meet to review the status of the implementation of the GPA and decide on action to be taken to strengthen its implementation.
Three intergovernmental meetings have been held so far:
- The first IGR meeting was held in Montreal (Canada) in 2001.
- The second IGR meeting was held in Beijing (China) in October 2006.
- The third IGR was held in Manila (Philippines) in January 2012
- The fourth IGR was held in Bali, Indonesia 25-27 October
A Global Conference on Land-Ocean Connections or GLOC is normally organized before any IGR to adequately inform decision makers. It gathers scientists, experts, policy-makers and non-government organizations (NGOs) to discuss current and emerging marine and coastal issues. They review policy and implementation frameworks and see how solutions contribute effectively in developing resilient marine and coastal ecosystems that serve coastal and upstream communities. These solutions are drawn up to help the international community develop more resource-efficient, lower carbon economies based on sustainable food, energy and water security and quality.
Two Global Conference on Land-Ocean Connections (GLOC) have taken place so far:
- The first GLOC meeting was held in Manila (Philippines) in January 2012.
- The second GLOC meeting took place in Montego Bay (Jamaica), in October 2013.
- The third GLOC meeting took place in Bali, Indonesia, in 23-24 October
The GPA Secretariat is currently preparing for the fourth Intergovernmental Review. In that regard, we invite countries to fill out our national survey. It can be found here.