Resources

Type: Publication

Showing 1 - 20 of 42

42 results found

Publication
8140 Fishing vessel
This brief will present the process needs and applications of refrigeration onboard refrigerated fishing vessels. Currently used technologies and refrigerants will be presented, along with the possible alternatives for new systems. The issues related to the management of existing fl eets and implications to the Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances will also be presented?
Publication
8139 Domestic Ref
Due to the complex nature of the cold chain and the high temperature dependency of post-harvest or post-mortem deterioration in food, temperature control in the food chain is vital. Temperature control tends to become less well controlled at the retail/professional and domestic stages of the cold chain. The food chain is responsible for greenhouse gas emissions through direct (refrigerant emissions) and indirect (energy consumption) eff ects. Published data for overall emissions for each section of a whole cold chain are relatively scarce.
Publication
8142 Transport refrigeration
This brief provides an overview of the main areas of transport refrigeration, some of the different systems used and the working fluids employed. It will go on to look at current trends in using alternative refrigerants and the direction the sector is moving in over a longer period. Future developments will be discussed along with the technical challenges facing designers as they attempt to reach the best balance between what the end-user expects from a system and the framework determined by international treaties and regulations.
Publication
8138 Cold storage
Cold storage warehouses store food after production and before foods are transported and distributed to supermarkets or catering establishments. Food is stored either chilled or frozen and may remain in the store for periods of a few hours, days or even a year (for some fruits and vegetables) in chillers and up to several months in freezers. This sector has been shown to be one of the sectors of the cold chain where the temperature of products is well temperature-controlled. Energy usage is important to cold store operators as it is a high proportion of the overall operating costs.
Publication
8141Food Processing
For consumers, the cold chain is often associated with transport, retail and household refrigerators. But refrigeration is also and widely used in the agri-food industry for the storage of raw materials and final products, as well as for food processing. This brief gives a short overview of refrigeration applications in the industry. The refrigeration technologies in use are briefly presented, according to facility size and temperature requirements, and the problems relating to the use of refrigerants are also discussed.
Women in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning - front cover
Refrigeration and air-conditioning is crucial for our health, nutrition, comfort and well-being. From prevention of food wastage to preservation of vaccines, from air conditioning in hospitals to our homes, we increasingly rely on the advances that refrigeration has brought us. However, all around the world the sector has always been a largely male-dominated work environment. The fast-growing sector can offer a wide variety of interesting and fulfilling careers for women as well as men.
Publication
Legislative and Policy
In order to follow and facilitate the HFC phase-down schedules contained in the Kigali Amendment, the Parties, including both developed and developing countries, will have to implement certain measures. This booklet contains a recommended set of legislative and policy options which the developing (Article 5) countries may wish to consider for implementation. It is intended to be a guide/tool for countries. It complements the previous publication “HCFC Policy & Legislative Options: A Guide for Developing Countries“
Publication
Promoting Ozone
This document was produced by the UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE) OzonAction Programme under the framework of the UNEP-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) grant partnership project: “Regional Programme for Enhancing Institutional Capacity for HCFC Phase-out linked to Energy Efficiency and Climate benefits in Asia Pacific”.
Publication
QPS pr-shipment MB
This UNEP OzonAction publication is intended to help National Ozone Units understand why the close supervision of Methyl Bromide (MB) use in QPS applications is important for their countries continued compliance with the Montreal Protocol. It provides information about how to correctly identify MB QPS uses, data management, reporting, stakeholder engagements, and how to control and prevent potential illegal trade of this ODS.
Publication
CAP achievement 2014
UNEP Compliance Assistance Programme's (CAP) main focus is on providing technical support to NOUs for the timely implementation of their HPMPs. It is the lead agency for HPMPs in 71 countries and the cooperating agency in another 28 countries, covering almost 100 countries. CAP also assists 103 Article 5 countries in institutional strengthening projects.
Publication
National certification
It is expected that in the near future there will be a considerably higher uptake around the world, and particularly in developing countries of ‘alternative refrigerants’, such as hydrocarbons, ammonia, carbon dioxide, unsaturated hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) –or hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) and HFOs mixtures.  
Publication
Twenty questions
This publication, Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer: 2014 Update, is a component of the 2014 report of the Montreal Protocol Scientific Assessment Panel, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2014. This document is an update of Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer: 2010 (Fahey, D.W., and M.I. Hegglin) and reflects the scientific information presented in the 2014 Assessment Report. It is a continuation of the updates of the first document with this title scope: Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer: 2002 (Fahey, D.W.).
Publication
Safe use HCFC Alternatives
Many of the alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) have particular characteristics in terms of toxicity, flammability and high pressure which are different from those used previously. It is therefore important that the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry adapts to both the technical and safety issues concerning these refrigerants. This publication provides an overview of the alternatives, their general characteristics and their application in the context of the safety issues.
Publication
iPIC publication
The ‘informal Prior-Informed Consent’ (iPIC) mechanism was launched in 2006 by the UNEP DTIE OzonAction as part of its work in providing assistance to developing countries to fulfil their commitments under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. This initiative was developed in order to better manage trade in ozone depleting substances (ODS) that are controlled under the Protocol.
Publication
International standards in RAC
This guide is intended to provide an introduction to standards and how they can be useful in supporting the adoption of alternatives in the context of the HCFC phase-out in developing countries. It also includes an overview of existing standards related to HCFCs and their alternatives, barriers to alternatives, the process of the adoption of international and regional standards at the national level, barriers to the adoption and how to overcome them.
Publication
Financing climate co-benefits
This document provides guidance for Ozone Officers in low volume HCFC consuming countries (LVCs) to help them understand how to seek financing outside of the Montreal Protocol’s Multilateral Fund to achieve the climate co-benefits indicated in their national HCFC Phase-out Management Plans
Publication
The Montreal Protocol and Human Health
The booklet summarises current understanding of how changes in the ozone layer affect human health, not only in the world we live in but also in the ‘World Avoided’. That is the world we would have lived in had we failed to control ozone depleting substances. By examining the ‘World Avoided’ we clearly see, to echo the words of the Vienna Convention, the magnitude of the “harmful impact on human health and the environment” that we have prevented through the effective implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
Publication
Phasing out HCFCs
This booklet aims to assist foam enterprises, especially SMEs, to better understand policies on HCFC phase-out, access to assistance from the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol and access alternative technologies in different foam applications taking into account challenges in converting to alternative technology. It also discusses some tips on how to identify enterprises that may use HCFCs and verify the HCFCs consumption of enterprises.
Publication
Good Servicing Practices
This guide for trainers is designed for organisations and institutes that conduct training workshops for servicing technicians involved in the maintenance of refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) equipment. It offers trainers up-to-date information on new technologies and refrigerants, as well as other issues related to their use and application.
Publication
Rigid PU foam
To improve technical capacity in relation to adoption of cyclopentane technology of a large number of small foam producers, the project was, therefore, designed to assist a system house for which small foam enterprises rely on for their supply of raw materials and technical advice, to develop polyol, one of the major raw materials for foam production, pre-blended with cyclopentane, instead of HCFC-141b. This approach also enhances market penetration of this new product by using the existing market network.

Showing 1 - 20 of 42