Roughly 80 percent of marine pollution originates on land. To address this challenge, strong and coordinated action is needed. UN Environment Programme contributes to tackling land-based pollution by hosting the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (GPA). Initially, the GPA tackled nine source categories of pollution . However, after the Manila Declaration of 2012, the GPA focused its resources on addressing three priority source categories, namely marine litter, nutrient management, and wastewater through global voluntary multi-stakeholder partnerships of governments, intergovernmental agencies, academia, the private sector, and civil society.