A national workshop was held on 23rd January 2018 at the Institute of Environmental Studies in Amasaman, Ghana to disseminate the vehicle inventory report and share results of policy strategies for fuel economy standards in Ghana under the National GFEI Project. The workshop was attended by 57 participants drawn from the following organizations: African Refiners Association, Ghana Chamber of Bulk Oil Distributors, Ghana Daewoo Motors, Ghana Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana Health Service, Ghana Institute of Executive Studies, Ghana News Agency, Ghana Revenue Authority, Ghana Road Transport Coordinating Council, Ghana Standards Authority, Ghana TV3 Network Limited, Metro Mass Transport, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Trade & Industry, Ministry of Transport, National Road Safety Commission of Ghana, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Toyota Ghana and UN Environment.
The workshop provided a platform for learning and sharing experiences among experts and stakeholders from the transport, finance, energy petroleum and environment sectors as well as from the media.
The Executive Director of the Ghana Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Mr. Peter Sarkodie gave the welcome address and officially opened the workshop. Keynote addresses and statements were provided by:
- Mrs. Levina Owusu on behalf of the Hon. Minister of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation.
- Mrs. Irene Messiba on behalf of the Hon. Minister of Transport
- Mr. David Rubia on behalf of UN Environment
The workshop was divided into two sessions:
- A technical session with presentations on the GFEI project to disseminate the findings, followed by discussions. The presentations were as follows:
- “Vehicle Fleet Evolution in Ghana from 2005 to 2016 and Policy Options for Fuel Economy” by Mr. Daniel Essel of Ministry of Transport
- “Vehicle inspection evolution & Future plan for Ghana to assist in implementation of fuel Economy Standards” by Mr. Daniel Essel on behalf of Mr. George Ackom of DVLA
- “Overview of the GFEI: Promoting Cleaner and More Fuel-Efficient Vehicles in Africa” by Mr. David Rubia, of UN Environment
- “Calculation of Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Ghana, Methodology and Results” by Mr. Dacosta Adjei of EPA
- “Cost Benefit Analysis: Socio-Economic Analysis of Policy Option” by Mr. Kwasi Asante of Ministry of Finance
- A group break out session where the participants were divided into two groups to deliberate on:
- Policies and strategies for Fuel Economy Standards
- Benefits associated with implementation of Fuel Economy Standards
The Customs Division of the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA) is the institution responsible for the collection of import taxes/duties on vehicles imported into Ghana. The Division maintains a database on vehicle imports, through its online platform i.e. the Ghana Community Network (GCNET). Data sourced from the Customs Division of the GRA for the vehicle inventory study indicated that vehicles in Ghana are imported (both new and used) mainly from Europe, Asia and North America. A total of 452,004 vehicles were imported in the study years. 66,036 vehicles were imported in the base year (2005), while 96,128, 98,621, 78,835 and 112,424 vehicles were imported in 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2016 respectively. The trend in vehicle importation could increase by 3 fold and 7 fold over the 2016 values in 2030 and 2050 respectively, if no action is taken to regulate the growth in fleet population.
The study indicated that the national average fuel economy for Ghana has been improving from 2005 to 2016 with annual national average light duty vehicle fuel economy (in L/100km) ranging from 7.4, 7.4, 7.3, 7.1, and 6.9 in 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2016, respectively. This improvement appears to be mainly due to fuel economy progress made in OECD countries where vehicles are mainly imported from and where average fuel consumption rates have been decreasing.
The following policy recommendations were made for Ghana to see to reduced climate and pollutant emissions from transport:
- Improve national Sulphur standards and introduce measures to promote the import of ultralow sulphur fuels
- Adopt and implement national standards for light duty vehicle emissions.
- Importation restrictions: New vehicles to comply with the Euro IV emission standard and above
- Mandatory installation of emission control devices, such as the installation of catalytic converters in vehicles without those devices.
- Development of vehicle emission test standards and mandatory vehicle emission testing.
- Revise custom procedures and introduce measures to support the import of clean vehicles
Fiscal measures and economic instruments
- Feebate: More efficient cars receive a bonus when purchased, while inefficient cars receive a penalty when purchased.
- Buy-back: Develop a system to get inefficient cars off the road in return for the consumer buying a more efficient vehicle.
Introduction of Clean Vehicles: Duty free import for clean vehicles (electric, CNG and hybrid electric vehicles to enhance dissemination of fuel efficient vehicles).
Traffic control measures
- Free parking for clean and efficient vehicles.
- Road Pricing with based on the efficiency of vehicles: The greenest cars will be eligible to 100% discount.
- Mandatory for all vehicles to have fuel economy labels.
- Vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions data to be made freely available to consumers.