One of the top priorities of the Government of South Sudan is to develop and implement sustainable management plans in the sub-sectors of the environment sector, so that the exploitation of natural resources does not adversely impact the environment. Until that is achieved, there is enormous pressure on natural resources, especially on the forests, as over 99 percent of the population of South Sudan depends on forests as their source of energy – fuel wood and charcoal, and timber for construction and furniture. The lack of environmental standards and guidelines to safeguard the exploration and exploitation in the extractive industry has led to pollution in the oil elds and in the surrounding areas. This trend needs to be checked through the formulation of environmental policies, standards and guidelines, and enforcement of these instruments. This first ever State of the Environment and Outlook report for South Sudan will form the basis and the benchmark for assessments, inventories, mapping and valuation of our vast natural resources. The information thus generated will be used for future planning and management of natural resources and environmental protection.